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THE AMERICAS AND AFRICAN SLAVERY

 

 

 

HAITI

    Brief chronology.

    From slavery to revolution.

    Haitians have claim to the first successful slave revolt and first in exile black African country in 1804.

    On December 5, 1492, Columbus arrives in Haiti (the island of Hispaniola)
 

    In 1697, the Spaniards cede the western third of Hispaniola to the French crown at the Treaty of Ryswick, naming it "Saint Domingue".

    Between 1697-1791, Saint Domingue is recognized as the richest colony in the New World. The capital, Cap Français, is called the Paris of the New World.

    In August 1791, the first major slave rebellion is initiated by Boukman, a voodoo houngan.

    The beginnings of civil war starts between the black dominated north and the mulatto dominated south.

    In 1796, Toussaint L'Ouverture, becomes the leader of the former slaves in the north.

    In 1801, Napoleon Bonaparte sends an army of more than 34,000 in an unsuccessful effort to control the slaves in revolt and recapture the colony.

    In May 1802, slavery is reintroduced, bring renewed rebellions and massacres.

In January 1804, Jean Jacques Dessalines proclaims Haiti as an independent black Republic.

    In 1915, the United States invaded Haiti and remained for about 19 years (1934).

    In 1957, François Duvalier (doctor, union leader), is elected president, also known as Papa Doc.

    In 1971, François Duvalier dies and is succeeded by his son Jean Claude, age 19 (also known as 'Baby Doc').

    Since at least 1971, Haiti is the poorest country in the western hemisphere.

    In December 1990, Jean-Bertrand Aristide (a priest) is elected President, in a landslide victory.

   

 

Toussaint L'Ouverture

François-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture
Born on May 20, 1743, in Saint-Domingue (Haiti)
Died on April 7, 1803, at Fort-de-Joux (France)
Religion: Roman Catholic

François-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture, was the leader of and General in the Haitian Revolution in the French colony of Saint Domingue (1791–1803). The Haitian Revolution was the first successful slave revolution transforming an entire society of slaves into a free, self-governing people, establishing Haiti, an independent black state.